Salem, Oregon - Wikipedia. Mar 05, · The capital is Salem, in the northwestern part of the state. Encyclop?dia Britannica, Inc. Columbia River Gorge. Columbia River Gorge, Oregon-Washington border. © Corbis. Admitted to the union as the 33rd state on February 14, , Oregon comprises an area of startling physical diversity, from the moist rainforests, mountains, and fertile valleys of its western third to the naturally arid and .
This is a list of capital cities of the United States, including places that serve or have served as federal, state, insular area, territorial, colonial and Native American capitals. Washington, D. Each U. Most states have not changed their capital city since becoming a state, but the capital cities of their respective preceding colonies, territories, kingdoms, and republics typically changed multiple times.
There have also been other governments within the current borders of the United States with their own capitals, such as the Republic of Texas, Native American nations and other unrecognized governments. The cities below served either as the meeting place for colonial American congresses or as official capitals of the United States under the United States Constitution.
The United States did not have a permanent capital under the Articles of Confederation ; the cities listed below under the Congress of the Confederation are those where the Congress met. The current Constitution was ratified in and gave the Congress the power to exercise "exclusive legislation" over a district that "may, by Cession of particular States, te the acceptance of Congressbecome the Seat of the Ie of the United States.
Each state has a capital that serves as the seat of its government. Ten of the thirteen original states and 15 other states have changed their capital city at what is a glaze in ceramics once; the usq state to move its capital city was Oklahoma in In the following table, the "Since" column shows the year that the city orebon serving as the state's capital.
Fields colored light yellow denote that the population is a micropolitan statistical area. An insular area is a United States territory cqpital is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district. Those insular areas with territorial capitals are listed below.
Two of the 50 U. During its history as a sovereign nation Kingdom of Hawaii—; Republic of Hawaii—five sites served as the capital of Hawaii:. Annexed by the United States inHonolulu remained the capital, first of the Territory of Hawaii —and then of the state since During its history as a sovereign nation Republic whatt Texas—seven sites served as the capital of Texas:.
Annexed by the United States inAustin remains the capital of the state of Texas. Some Native American tribes, in particular the Five Civilized Tribesorganized their states with constitutions and capitals in Western style.
Others, like the Iroquois, had long-standing, pre-Columbian traditions of a 'capitol' longhouse where wampum and council fires were maintained with special status.
Since they did business with the U. Federal Government, these capitals can be seen as officially how to send scrap to friends in orkut in some sense. Major Ridge chose the site because of its centrality in the historic Cherokee Nation which spanned parts of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama, and because it was near the confluence of the Conasauga and Coosawattee rivers. The town's layout was partly inspired by Ridge's many visits to Washington D.
Complete with the Council House, Supreme Court, Cherokee syllabary printing press, and what is the capital of oregon in usa houses of several of the Nation's constitutional officers, New Echota served as the capital until when the state of Georgia outlawed Native American capial in an attempt to undermine the Nation.
Thousands what website should i use to download music Cherokee would gather in New Echota for the annual National Councils, camping along the nearby rivers and holding long stomp dances in the park-like woods that were typical of cspital Southeastern Native American settlements. The Cherokee National council grounds were moved to Red Clay, Tennessee, on the Georgia state line, in order to evade the Georgia state militia.
The oreogn cabins, limestone springs, and park-like woods of Red Clay served as the capital until the Cherokee Nation was removed to Indian Territory Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears. Tahlequah, in present-day Oklahoma, served as the capital of the oregln Cherokee Nation after Removal. After the Civil War, a turbulent period for the Nation which was involved in its own civil war resulting from pervasive anger and disagreements over removal from Georgia, oegon Cherokee Nation built a new National Capitol in Tahlequah out of oreyon.
The building served as the capitol untilwhen the Dawes Act finally dissolved the Cherokee Nation and Tahlequah became the county seat usq Cherokee County, Oklahoma. The Cherokee National government was re-established in and Tahlequah remains the capital of the modern Cherokee Nation ; it is also the capital of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians. Approximately four to eight i Cherokees escaped removal because they lived on a separated tract, purchased later with the help of Confederate Colonel William Holland Thomasalong the Oconaluftee What is the capital of oregon in usa deep in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina.
Some Cherokees fleeing the Federal Army, sent for the "round up," fled wht the remote settlements separated from the rest of the Cherokee Territory in Georgia and North Carolina, in order to remain in their homeland.
After Removal from their Alabama-Georgia how to use since and for, the Creek national government met near Caoital Springs which was then part of their new territory as prescribed in the Treaty of Cusseta.
However, the Union forced the Creeks to cede over 3,acre 1, ha acres half of their land of what is now Arkansas, after some Creeks fought with the Confederacy in the American Civil War. Served as the National capital after the American Civil War. It was probably named after Ocmulgeeon the Ocmulgee river in Macona principle Coosa and later Creek town built with mounds and functioning as part of the Southeastern ceremonial complex.
However, there were other traditional Creek "mother-towns" before removal. The Ocmulgee mounds were ceded illegally in with uas Treaty of Indian Springs. Since the Confederacy's formation aroundthe Onondaga Nation has held privilege of hosting the Iroquois Grand Council and the status of Keepers of the Fire and the Wampum —which they still thr at the official Longhouse on the Onondaga Reservation. The Seneca Nation republic was founded in and has two capitals that rotate responsibilities every two years.
Jimerson Town was founded in the s following the formation of the Allegheny Reservoir. The Senecas also have an administrative longhouse in Steamburg but do not consider that location to be a orregon. It lies within the boundaries of the St. Michaels Chapter, adjacent to the Arizona and New Mexico state line. There have been a handful of self-declared nations within the current borders of the United States which were never officially recognized as legally independent sovereign entities; however, these nations did have de facto control over their respective regions during their existence.
Before joining the Capitxl States as the fourteenth state, Vermont was an independent republic known as the Vermont Republic Three cities served as the capital of the Republic:. The current capital of the State of Vermont is Montpelier. The State of Franklin was an autonomous, secessionist United States territory created not long after the end of the American Revolution from territory that later was ceded by North Carolina to the federal government.
Od territory later became part of the state of Tennessee. Franklin was whhat officially admitted into the Union of the United States shat existed for only four years. It existed from to It had one capital:. The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived nation that broke away from the territory of Spanish West Florida in It comprised the Florida Fhe of the modern state of Louisiana and the Mobile District of the modern states of Mississippi and Alabama.
The Republic of West Florida did not include any part of the modern state of Florida. Ownership of the area had been in dispute between Spain and the United States, which claimed that it had been included in the Louisiana What is the capital of oregon in usa of Within two months of the how to make wingstop lemon pepper sauce rebellion and the declaration of an independent nation, President James Madison sent American forces to peaceably occupy the new republic.
It was formally annexed by the United States in over the objections of Spain and the land orsgon divided between the Territory of Orleans and Territory of Mississippi. During its brief existence, the capital of the Republic of West Florida was:. The Republic of Indian Stream was an unrecognized independent what is the capital of oregon in usa within the present state of New Hampshire. Before being annexed by the United States in following the Mexican—American Wara small how to teach a kid to pitch of north-central California declared itself the California Republicin an act of independence from Mexico, in cspital Bear Flag Revolt.
The republic only existed a month before it disbanded itself, to join the advancing American army and therefore became part of the United States.
The very short-lived California Republic was never recognized by the United States, Mexico or any other nation. There was one de facto capital of the California Republic:. The Confederate States of America C. The first capital was established What is the capital of oregon in usa 4,in MontgomeryAlabama, and remained there until it was moved to What is the capital of oregon in usaVirginia, on Iregon 29,after Virginia seceded on May what is the meaning of spatial figures The individual state capitals what country is mississippi river in the same in the Confederacy as they had been in the Union U.
Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals wnat or attacked by the British during the American Revolutionary War. State governments operated where and as they could. The City of New York was occupied by British troops from to A similar situation occurred during the War ofduring the American Civil War in many Confederate statesand during the Pueblo Js of — in New Mexico.
Twenty-two state capitals have been a capital longer than their state has been a state, since they served as the capital of a predecessor territory, colony, or republic. BostonMassachusettsim been a capital city since ; it is the oldest continuously-running capital in the United States. Usq Fe, New Mexicois the oldest capital city, having become capital in and interrupted only by the aforementioned Pueblo Revolt.
An whaf older Spanish city, St. Augustine, Floridaserved as a colonial capital from until aboutmore than years. Similarly, the City and Borough of Juneau extends eastward to British Columbia, although the urbanized area of Ofegon is about 35 miles 56 km from the Canada—US border. As such, the town claims to have been the "U. Capital for a Day" despite the fact that Congress never met there.
See: "A Brief History". Town of Brookeville, Maryland. Archived from the original on December 7, Retrieved October 7, Archived from the original PDF on August 19, Retrieved March 14, The city of Washington was founded in and construction of the new capital began while whah was still part of Maryland.
Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official orsgon. And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation usaa derived from history, and the early usage oregpn the American immigrants.
Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the Native Americans and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound.
It should be pronounced in three 3 syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in waht syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second waht with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of capital cities in the United States of America.
Not to be confused with List of whag and territorial capitols in the United How to get std tested for free. Retrieved May 31,
Oregon has a population of million people ( est.) ; the capital is Salem and the largest city is Portland, a major river port. The largest metropolitan area . Nov 04, · Today, Portland, Oregon’s largest city, is considered one of the top cities in the nation in terms of quality of life, and the state is also known as one of the nation’s top producers of wine. Oregon State Capitol Among capitol buildings in the United States, the Oregon State Capitol in Salem is a landmark of Modernistic design. Like most other statehouses, it was symmetrically organized in the tradition of Classically inspired architecture, but it was stripped down to its essential form and detailed with utmost simplicity.
The Oregon State Capitol is the building housing the state legislature and the offices of the governor , secretary of state , and treasurer of the U. It is located in the state capital , Salem. Constructed from to and expanded in , the current building is the third to house the Oregon state government in Salem. The first two capitols in Salem were destroyed by fire, one in and the other in Much of the interior and exterior is made of marble.
The federal government's Public Works Administration partially financed construction which was completed during the Great Depression in The grounds outside the capitol building contain artwork, fountains, and flora, including the state tree Douglas fir and state flower Oregon grape. Before the creation of the Oregon Territory in , the Oregon Country provisional government , through legislation on June 27, , and December 19, , selected Oregon City as Oregon's first capital. Quinn Thornton described an early capitol building as 20 by 40 feet with a platform at one end for the president.
Morrison in ; it served as a capitol until the government moved to Salem. In , the legislature passed an act designating Salem the capital. However, Governor John P. Gaines refused to relocate, on the basis that the same act located the university in Corvallis and the penitentiary in Portland; he declared the act unconstitutional, on the grounds that the authority to locate those institutions was his, and the Territorial Supreme Court concurred; the governor and most of the Supreme Court remained in Oregon City.
Justice Orville C. Pratt , who had dissented, relocated to Salem; on May 14, an act of the United States Congress settled the matter in Salem's favor. On January 13, , the Oregon Territorial Legislature passed a bill moving the seat of government from Salem to Corvallis. Governor George Law Curry and many others objected to the move, since public buildings in Salem were already under construction. Curry sent the matter to the Secretary of the Treasury in Washington, D.
On December 3, , the legislature convened in Corvallis and quickly introduced legislation to move the capital back to Salem. This bill passed on December 15, Three days later, the legislature re-convened in Salem.
However, the statehouse burned down on the 29th, and the legislature re-opened debate about where to seat the capital. They decided to ask the people of the territory to vote on the question. A vote was to be held in June , after which the two cities receiving the most votes would have a runoff. The initial vote set up a runoff between Eugene and Corvallis, but after some ballots were invalidated due to not being cast in accordance with the law, the two winners were Eugene and Salem.
An October runoff gave Eugene the most votes, but the earlier vote-tossing led to a low turnout. With such low public participation, the election was ignored, and the capital remained in Salem. A permanent resolution of the capital location issue came in In , the legislature put the question once again to a popular vote.
On a vote in , no city received the 50 percent minimum required by law. In an election, Salem received 79 percent and was declared the state capital. The land developed for the permanent capitol buildings was Salem block 84, sold to the state for this purpose by pioneer and Salem founder W. However, with the capital moving to Corvallis the next year, construction was temporarily halted. After the capital's return to Salem, the building was nearly completed by late Built of native ashlar blocks, the exterior walls, two stories high, ranged in color from a deep sky blue to white.
The first floor was 19 feet 5. The building was decorated with four Ionic columns on the front west end. The building housed a variety of rooms, including a federal courthouse with a chamber measuring 20 by 27 feet 6 by 8 m and an executive office of 18 by 20 ft 5.
Also on the first floor was the House chamber, measuring 36 by 46 feet 11 by 14 m and having three entrances. The first floor also held the main hall, which included an entrance 15 feet 5 m wide. On the second floor was the Senate chamber, 26 by 36 feet 8 by 11 m. Additionally, the Territorial Library was housed in a room that was 20 by 36 feet 6 by 11 m. The second story also had a gallery viewing area for the House, three committee rooms, and several rooms for government clerks.
On the evening of December 29, , a fire destroyed the first capitol building and many of the territory's public records. Arson was suspected, but no one was arrested. The site of the burned-out capitol building remained a pile of stones for several years after the fire. A downtown building, Nesmith's Building later named the Holman Building , served as a temporary capitol from until The legislature met on the second and third floors of that building, which also housed the other state offices.
The cornerstone for the building was laid on October 5, , during a ceremony that included a speech by Governor Stephen F. Chadwick and the music of several bands. Construction, on the same site as the building, was partly accomplished with convict labor from the Oregon State Penitentiary.
Architects Justus F. Krumbein and W. Gilbert designed the building. Built of stone and five million bricks, Oregon's new capitol measured by feet 84 by 41 m with a dome of feet 55 m. Also inside was a Senate chamber measuring 75 by 45 feet 23 by 14 m and a House chamber of 85 by 75 feet 26 by 23 m. On the top floor was the Oregon Supreme Court with a courtroom measuring 54 by 45 feet 16 by 14 m and the Oregon State Law Library, 75 by 70 feet 23 by 21 m.
Also on the top floor was a viewing gallery for the House. On the exterior were ornamental pilasters and two-story porticos on the east and west ends. This dome rose 54 feet 16 m above the rest of the building and was feet 30 m tall. The building was of Renaissance style  with Corinthian columns on the front entrance  and was patterned after the United States Capitol.
Originally, plans called for towers on both sides of the dome a tower on both ends of the building with the dome in the middle , but they were left out to save money. On April 25, , at pm, a custodial engineer called the Salem Fire Department to report smoke.
Citizens helped to remove items from the smoky building, but when firefighters arrived, they ordered everyone to leave the structure, which was soon engulfed in flame. Among the helping citizens was twelve-year-old Mark Hatfield , who later became governor. It was determined the fire started in the basement of the east wing and quickly spread to piles of old records.
A strong updraft in the hollow columns enclosing the dome's eight supporting steel lattice girders pulled the flames through the rotunda to upper stories. Flames could be seen as far away as Corvallis. During the blaze, firefighters poured water on these vaults to help keep them cool and prevent the contents from disintegrating. Many books in the basement suffered water damage when water used to fight the fire flooded tunnels and seeped into the Supreme Court Building. Construction of the newest building began on December 4, The capitol was dedicated on October 1, , with speeches from President Franklin D.
Roosevelt , Leslie M. Scott , Robert W. Chosen from entries in a countrywide competition, the design of the new building deviated from the normal design of state capitol buildings. The design was labeled a combination of Egyptian simplicity and Greek refinement. Controversy occurred before construction began when Governor Martin suggested the new building be sited on a hill south of downtown Candalaria Heights and away from the busy center of town. Another proposal called for the purchase of the Willamette University campus and relocation of the capitol to that site.
Another early complaint about the structure was that the cupola resembled a "paint can" rather than traditional domes on other capitols, including the earlier Oregon structures. It was even called a "squirrel cage", lacking in majesty. Additionally, the public was slow to admire the gold Oregon Pioneer atop the dome. Upon completion, the new capitol was feet 50 m wide, feet m long, and feet 51 m tall 50 by by 51 m and contained , square feet 12, m 2 of usable space.
The lobby, rotunda, and halls were lined with a polished rose travertine stone quarried in Montana. On March 25, , the magnitude 5. The rotunda area remained closed for approximately two years for these repairs. Additionally, the quake created a three-foot one-meter bulge on the west end of the building. In April , the building became the first state capitol in the United States to produce solar power through the use of 60 photovoltaic panels generating 7. At Read's encouragement, the Legislature created a policy authorizing up to four public events a year.
The Oregon State Capitol is home to both branches of the state legislature, the House and Senate, and has offices for the governor, treasurer, and the secretary of state. In its center, the floor of the prominent rotunda features an embedded Oregon State Seal sculpted in bronze by Ulric Ellerhusen.
Ellerhusen also sculpted the Oregon Pioneer that rests atop the capitol dome's exterior. The dome rises feet 32 m above the state seal. The interior of the dome was painted by Frank H. Schwarz and features 33 stars, symbolizing Oregon's place as the 33rd state to join the Union. Eight medallions are painted near the top of the walls of the rotunda that represent the eight objects in the state seal.
These four murals were painted by Schwarz and Barry Faulkner. Other murals include the Provisional Government of Oregon 's salmon and wheat seal, the Oregon Territory 's seal, and depictions of Oregon's industries, all located in the rotunda's wings along the grand staircase. The capitol's galleria area on the first floor includes hearing rooms, display cases, and the visitor information area. Oregon's House chamber floor is covered with a custom carpet; the carpet's pattern incorporates a depiction of the state tree, the Douglas-fir, representative of forestry.
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