Beautiful Landforms in Spain
Apr 09, · Major landforms in Spain include the Meseta Plateau, which covers 45 percent of the country, the Andalusian Plain in the southeast, the Pyrenees Mountains that define the border between Spain and France, and the Ebro River Basin in the northeast. Spain is located on the Iberian Peninsula. The majority of Spain's peninsular landmass consists of the Meseta Central, a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges. Other landforms include narrow coastal plains and some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of which is the Andalusian Plain in the southwest. The country can be divided into ten natural regions or.
Asked by Wiki User. This high plateau averages 2, ft in the north and 2, ft in the south. Another landform of Spain is Reyions which are mountains that extend along the border of Spain and Francethe highest point is 11, ft. What are the main landform regions of brazil? There are 7 landform regions in Canada right now. What are the two how to fix negative accounts on credit report landform regions in the us.
What makes landform regions in the United States differ. A region is an area that has features that set it apart from others. Landform regions that are rich in fossil fuels include mountainous regions. The three landform regions are the east coastal gulf, uplands, east coastal plains. Some of the main landforms regions in Germany are the uplands of central Germany, the Harz Mountains, the Rothaargebirge mountains and the Bavarian Alps.
There is also the Black Forest and the Rhine River. Annapurna Mountain. A marine climate. Ask Question. See Answer. Top Answer. Wiki User Answered Related Questions. What are the main landform regions of Brazil? What are the main landform regions of Sweden? What are the main landform regions in Spain? What are the main landform regions in India? What are how to even out hair main landform regions of Italy? How many landform regions are there in Canada?
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Geography of Spain
The majority of Spain's peninsular landmass consists of the Meseta Central, a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges. Other landforms include narrow coastal plains and some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of which is the Andalusian Plain in the southwest. The majority of Spain's peninsular region consists of the Meseta Central, a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges. Other landforms include narrow coastal plains and some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of which is the Andalusian Plain in the southwest.
Spanish territory comprises nearly five-sixths of the Iberian Peninsula, which the nation shares with Portugal, the micro-state of Andorra, and the British possession of Gibraltar. Peninsular Spain, covering an area of , square kilometers, consists of a central plateau known as the Meseta Central, which is enclosed by high mountains on its north, south, east, and part of its western sides.
The area that is predominantly plateau also encompasses several mountain systems that are lower than the peripheral mountains. Although Spain thus has physical characteristics that make it, to some extent, a natural geographic unit, there are also internal geographic features that tend to compartmentalize the country. The topographical characteristics also generate a variety of climatic regimes throughout the country.
By far the greatest part of the country, however, experiences a continental climate of hot, dry summers and rather harsh, cold winters. Where these conditions prevail, the soils have eroded, vegetation is sparse, and agriculture is difficult. Irrigation is practiced where possible, but it is difficult because the flow in most streams is seasonally irregular, and the stream beds of larger rivers are frequently much lower than the adjacent terrain. Most of Spain's boundary is water: the Mediterranean Sea on the south and east from Gibraltar to the French border; and the Atlantic Ocean on the northwest and southwest--in the south as the Golfo de Cadiz and in the north as the Bay of Biscay.
Spain also shares land boundaries with France and Andorra along the Pyrenees in the northeast, with Portugal on the west, and with the small British possession of Gibraltar at the southern tip. Although the affiliation of Gibraltar continued to be a contentious issue between Spain and Britain in the late s, there were no other disputes over land boundaries, and no other country claimed the insular provinces of the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands.
The majority of Spain's peninsular landmass consists of the Meseta Central, a highland plateau rimmed and dissected by mountain ranges.
Other landforms include narrow coastal plains and some lowland river valleys, the most prominent of which is the Andalusian Plain in the southwest. The country can be divided into ten natural regions or subregions: the dominant Meseta Central, the Cordillera Cantabrica and the northwest region, the Iberico region, the Pyrenees, the Penibetico region in the southeast, the Andalusian Plain, the Ebro Basin, the coastal plains, the Balearic Islands, and the Canary Islands.
These are commonly grouped into four types: the Meseta Central and associated mountains, other mountainous regions, lowland regions, and islands. The Meseta Central, a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain, has elevations that range from to meters.
Rimmed by mountains, the Meseta Central slopes gently to the west and to the series of rivers that form some of the border with Portugal. The Sistema Central, described as the "dorsal spine" of the Meseta Central, divides the Meseta into northern and southern subregions, the former higher in elevation and smaller in area than the latter.
The Sistema Central rims the capital city of Madrid with peaks that rise to 2, meters north of the city and to lower elevations south of it. West of Madrid, the Sistema Central shows its highest peak of almost 2, meters.
The mountains of the Sistema Central, which continue westward into Portugal, display some glacial features; the highest of the peaks are snow-capped for most of the year. Despite their height, however, the mountain system does not create a major barrier between the northern and the southern portions of the Meseta Central because several passes permit road and railroad transportation to the northwest and the northeast.
The southern portion of the Meseta is further divided by twin mountain ranges, the Montes de Toledo running to the east and the Sierra de Guadalupe, to the west. Their peaks do not rise much higher than 1, meters. With many easy passes, including those that connect the Meseta with the Andalusian Plain, the Montes de Toledo and the Sierra de Guadalupe do not present an obstacle to transportation and communication.
The two mountain ranges are separated from the Sistema Central to the north by the Tagus River. Forming the southern edge of the Meseta Central, the Sierra Morena merges in the east with the southern extension of the Sistema Iberico and reaches westward along the northern edge of the Rio Guadalquivir valley to join the mountains in southern Portugal.
Despite their relatively low elevations, seldom surpassing 1, meters, the mountains of the Sierra Morena are rugged. The Cordillera Cantabrica, a limestone formation, runs parallel to, and close to, the northern coast near the Bay of Biscay.
Its highest points are the Picos de Europa, surpassing 2, meters. The Cordillera Cantabrica extends kilometers and abruptly drops 1, meters some 30 kilometers from the coast.
To the west lie the hills of the northwest region. The barren, rugged slopes of this mountain range cover an area of close to 21, square kilometers. The mountains exceed 2, meters in their northern region and reach a maximum height of over 2, meters east of the headwaters of the Rio Duero.
The extremely steep mountain slopes in this range are often cut by deep, narrow gorges. External to the Meseta Central lie the Pyrenees in the northeast and the Sistema Penibetico in the southeast. The Pyrenees, extending from the eastern edge of the Cordillera Cantabrica to the Mediterranean Sea, form a solid barrier and a natural border between Spain and both France and Andorra that, throughout history, has effectively isolated the countries from each other. Passage is easy in the relatively low terrain at the eastern and western extremes of the mountain range; it is here that international railroads and roadways cross the border.
In the central section of the Pyrenees, however, passage is difficult. In several places, peaks rise above 3, meters; the highest, Pico de Aneto, surpasses 3, meters. The Sistema Penibetico extends northeast from the southern tip of Spain, running parallel to the coast until it merges with the southern extension of the Sistema Iberico near the Rio Jucar and with the eastern extension of the Sierra Morena.
The Sierra Nevada, part of the Sistema Penibetico south of Granada, includes the highest mountain on the peninsula, Mulhacen, which rises to 3, meters. Other peaks in the range also surpass 3, meters. The major lowland regions are the Andalusian Plain in the southwest, the Ebro Basin in the northeast, and the coastal plains. The Andalusian Plain is essentially a wide river valley through which the Rio Guadalquivir flows. The river broadens out along its course, reaching its widest point at the Golfo de Cadiz.
The Andalusian Plain is bounded on the north by the Sierra Morena and on the south by the Sistema Penibetico; it narrows to an apex in the east where these two mountain chains meet.
The Ebro Basin is formed by the Rio Ebro valley, contained by mountains on three sides--the Sistema Iberico to the south and west, the Pyrenees to the north and east, and their coastal extensions paralleling the shore to the east.
Minor low-lying river valleys close to the Portuguese border are located on the Tagus and the Rio Guadiana. The coastal plains regions are narrow strips between the coastal mountains and the seas. They are broadest along the Golfo de Cadiz, where the coastal plain adjoins the Andalusian Plain, and along the southern and central eastern coasts.
The narrowest coastal plain runs along the Bay of Biscay, where the Cordillera Cantabrica ends close to shore. The remaining regions of Spain are the Balearic and the Canary Islands, the former located in the Mediterranean Sea and the latter in the Atlantic Ocean.
The Balearic Islands, encompassing a total area of 5, square kilometers, lie 80 kilometers off Spain's central eastern coast. The mountains that rise up above the Mediterranean Sea to form these islands are an extension of the Sistema Penibetico.
The archipelago's highest points, which reach 1, meters, are in northwestern Majorca, close to the coast. The central portion of Majorca is a plain, bounded on the east and the southeast by broken hills. The Canary Islands, ninety kilometers off the west coast of Africa, are of volcanic origin.
The large central islands, Gran Canaria and Tenerife, have the highest peaks; on Gran Canaria they rise to 1, meters and on Tenerife, to 3, meters. Peninsular Spain experiences three climatic types: continental, maritime, and Mediterranean. The locally generated continental climate covers the majority of peninsular Spain, influencing the Meseta Central, the adjoining mountains to the east and the south, and the Ebro Basin. A continental climate is characterized by wide diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature and by low, irregular rainfall with high rates of evaporation that leave the land arid.
Annual rainfall generally is thirty to sixty-four centimeters; most of the Meseta region receives about fifty centimeters. The northern Meseta, the Sistema Central, and the Ebro Basin have two rainy seasons, one in spring April-June and the other in autumn OctoberNovember , with late spring being the wettest time of the year. In the southern Meseta, also, the wet seasons are spring and autumn, but the spring one is earlier March , and autumn is the wetter season.
Even during the wet seasons, rain is irregular and unreliable. Continental winters are cold, with strong winds and high humidity, despite the low precipitation. Except for mountain areas, the northern foothills of the Sistema Iberico are the coldest area, and frost is common. Summers are warm and cloudless, producing average daytime temperatures that reach 21 C in the northern Meseta and 24 to 27 C in the southern Meseta; nighttime temperatures range from 7 to 10 C. The Ebro Basin, at a lower altitude, is extremely hot during the summer, and temperatures can exceed 43 C.
Summer humidities are low in the Meseta Central and in the Ebro Basin, except right along the shores of in the Rio Ebro where humidity is high. A maritime climate prevails in the northern part of the country, from the Pyrenees to the northwest region, characterized by relatively mild winters, warm but not hot summers, and generally abundant rainfall spread out over the year.
Temperatures vary only slightly, both on a diurnal and a seasonal basis. The moderating effects of the sea, however, abate in the inland areas, where temperatures are 9 to 18 C more extreme than temperatures on the coast. Distance from the Atlantic Ocean also affects precipitation, and there is less rainfall in the east than in the west. Autumn October through December is the wettest season, while July is the driest month.
The high humidity and the prevailing off-shore winds make fog and mist common along the northwest coast; this phenomenon is less frequent a short distance inland, however, because the mountains form a barrier keeping out the sea moisture.
The Mediterranean climatic region extends from the Andalusian Plain along the southern and eastern coasts up to the Pyrenees, on the seaward side of the mountain ranges that parallel the coast. Total rainfall in this region is lower than in the rest of Spain, and it is concentrated in the late autumn-winter period. Generally, rainfall is slight, often insufficient, irregular, and unreliable. Temperatures in the Mediterranean region usually are higher in both summer and winter, and diurnal temperature changes are more limited than those of the continental region.
Temperatures in January normally average 10 to 13 C in most of the Mediterranean region, and they are 9 C colder in the northeastern coastal area near Barcelona. In winter, temperatures inland in the Andalusian Plain are slightly lower than those on the coasts. Temperatures in July and August average 22 to 27 C on the coast and 29 to 31 C farther inland, with low humidity.
The Mediterranean region is marked by Leveche winds--hot, dry, easterly or southeasterly air currents that originate over North Africa. These winds, which sometimes carry fine dust, are most common in spring. Of the roughly 1, rivers and streams in Spain, only the Tagus is more than kilometers long; all but 90 extend less than 96 kilometers.
These shorter rivers carry small volumes of water on an irregular basis, and they have seasonally dry river beds; however, when they do flow, they often are swift and torrential. Most major rivers rise in the mountains rimming or dissecting the Meseta Central and flow westward across the plateau through Portugal to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. One significant exception is the Rio Ebro, which flows eastward to the Mediterranean.
Rivers in the extreme northwest and in the narrow northern coastal plain drain directly into the Atlantic Ocean. The northwestern coastline is also truncated by rias, waterbodies similar to fjords. The Rio Guadalquivir is one of the most significant rivers in Spain because it irrigates a fertile valley, thus creating a rich agricultural area, and because it is navigable inland, making Seville the only inland river port for ocean-going traffic in Spain. The major river in the northwest region is the Rio Mino.
External Boundaries and Landform Regions Most of Spain's boundary is water: the Mediterranean Sea on the south and east from Gibraltar to the French border; and the Atlantic Ocean on the northwest and southwest--in the south as the Golfo de Cadiz and in the north as the Bay of Biscay.
The Meseta Central and Associated Mountains The Meseta Central, a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain, has elevations that range from to meters. Lowland Regions The major lowland regions are the Andalusian Plain in the southwest, the Ebro Basin in the northeast, and the coastal plains. Climate Peninsular Spain experiences three climatic types: continental, maritime, and Mediterranean. Drainage Of the roughly 1, rivers and streams in Spain, only the Tagus is more than kilometers long; all but 90 extend less than 96 kilometers.
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